Dr. Henriette Norda LL.M.

REFUSAL TO WEAR A FACE MASK CAN JUSTIFY THE DISMISSAL OF A TEACHER

By judgment of 7 October 2021 (docket number: 10 Sa 867/21) the Regional Labour Court Berlin-Brandenburg (Landesarbeitsgericht Berlin-Brandenburg – LAG Berlin-Brandenburg) has rejected the action for protection against dismissal brought by a teacher who refused to comply with the obligation to wear mouth-nose protection 1. Facts In this case, the employment of the claimant teacher …

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THE EVIDENTIAL VALUE OF A CERTIFICATE OF INCAPACITY FOR WORK

By judgement of 8 October 2021 (docket number: 5 AZR 149/21) contrary to the two previous instance decisions, the Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht – BAG) dismissed a claim for continued payment of remuneration. The Court has ruled that the evidential value of the certificate of incapacity for work can be affected in particular if an …

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Employers are not obliged to pay employees in event of a corona lockdown

The Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht – BAG) has ruled on a Corona claim for the first time. By judgement of 13 October 2021 (docket number: 5 AZR 211/21) the Court has ruled that an employer does not bear the risk of loss of work and is not obliged to pay remuneration to employees under the …

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Stand-by time = working time?

By judgment of 9 March 2021 (docket number: C-580/19) the European Court of Justice (ECJ) has ruled that periods of stand-by time, in their entirety, are considered as “working time” where the constraints imposed on the employees during those periods objectively and very significantly affect their ability freely to manage the time during which their …

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Presumption of Discrimination due to Gender in Equal Pay Claims

If a woman’s pay is lower than the comparative pay of her male colleagues, there is a rebuttable presumption of discrimination due to gender. The Problem According to the General Equal Treatment Act (Allgemeines Gleichbehandlungsgesetz), discrimination on the basis of certain characteristics is unlawful. However, it is often impossible for the person discriminated against to …

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Private use of internet and e-mail during working hours – Termination without notice due to “working time fraud”

The private use of internet and e-mail despite a corresponding prohibition during working hours on company devices can justify termination without notice under German labour law the Higher Regional Labour Court of Cologne ruled on 7 February 2020 (docket number: 4 Sa 329/19). The case An employee of a company had written several e-mails and …

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The new Corona Warning App and its legal implications for employment law

The new Corona Warning App launched in Germany on Tuesday June 16th , 2020 and had already been downloaded nearly 6,5 million times as of the next morning. How does the App work? According to the information released by the German government, the app uses Bluetooth technology to measure the distance and duration of encounters …

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Parental leave and vacation entitlement – a complex matter for employers

The problem Vacation entitlements – a matter that has undergone so many changes lately that the author can no longer even think of a suitable introduction. However this article focuses on a recent decision of the Federal Labour Court (19 March 2019, docket number: 9 AZR 495/17) in which the court explained the connections between …

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New German law shall prevent crisis in labour market

For years, the German labour market prospered, mass unemployment was not at all a problem, in fact it was difficult to find qualified employees. However, the times of sustained growth may soon be over. The ifo business climate index has been decreasing for the last couple of months and the German economy shrank slightly in …

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Federal Labour Court specifies requirements for termination of employment due to insufficient fitness

1. The Problem There are many jobs that require excellent mental or physical fitness. If this fitness is no longer maintained, the question often arises as to whether the employment relationship can still be maintained. This was also the problem in a case decided by the Federal Labour Court (docket number: 7 AZR 292/17) on …

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Overtime compensation – are 9 days vacation enough?

The problem Over time, a complex matter often leads to disputes, sometimes even trials between employers and employees. The question whether employers may arrange overtime, but also how to reimburse it is one such highly controversial issue. On June, 26 2019 (docket number: 5 AZR 452/18) the Federal Labour Court (BAG) had to decide whether …

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The end of special rights for the church?

The problem Equal treatment is not only becoming more and more important since #metoo a few years ago, but has influenced the European Union for nearly 20 years. On June 2000 the Council Directive 2000/43/ implemented the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin into European Law. Since then more …

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NEW CHALLENGES FOR VACATION ENTITLEMENT

1. The problem German vacation law has changed considerably in recent years. The most current question to be decided by both the Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht, BAG) and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) concerned the expiration of vacation entitlements. German law (Sec. 7 para. 3 German Vacation Act, BUrlG) provides that the outstanding vacation …

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Micro vacation – a gigantic problem?

On March, 6 2019 the State Labour Court Baden Wurttemberg (docket number 4 Sa 73/18) decided that half day vacation does not fulfil the legal requirements where employees don’t have an entitlement to request such micro vacation. In the case at issue, the plaintiff filed legal cause against his employer demanding his right to be …

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German Regional Labor Court rules: Employer’s evidence of employee‘s breach of contractual duties admissible even though employer has violated data protection law when obtaining it LAG Baden-Wuerttemberg, ruling dated 6 June 2018 – 21 Sa 48/17 Appeal filed with the Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht), docket no. 2 AZR 426/18

With its judgment dated 6 June 2018 (docket number 21 Sa 48/17), the Higher Regional Labor Court of Baden-Wurttemberg (Landesarbeitsgericht Baden-Württemberg) found that an employer may use evidence proving an employee’s breach of a contractual duty against the employee, even though the evidence had only been accidentally discovered during a search of the employee’s IT-equipment. …

German Regional Labor Court rules: Employer’s evidence of employee‘s breach of contractual duties admissible even though employer has violated data protection law when obtaining it LAG Baden-Wuerttemberg, ruling dated 6 June 2018 – 21 Sa 48/17 Appeal filed with the Federal Labour Court (Bundesarbeitsgericht), docket no. 2 AZR 426/18 Read More »